Ronald R. Fogleman was born in January 1942, in Lewistown, PA, and graduated from Juniata Joint High School, Mifflintown, PA, in 1959. Four years later he graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree from the U.S. Air Force Academy and a commission as a second lieutenant. He completed pilot training in September 1964 at Vance Air Force Base, Okla., and stayed on for three more years as a flight training instructor and examiner. After a six-month stint in combat crew training in F-100s at Luke AFB, Ariz., he joined the 510th Tactical Fighter Squadron in June 1968 as a fighter pilot stationed at Bien Hoa Air Base, South Vietnam. On 12 September, Fogleman was shot down by multiple hits from small arms fire. He ejected over hostile territory and hid on the ground from the enemy that was as close as 20 yards. He was picked up by a Cobra helicopter and rode on the outside until reaching the safety of a Special Forces camp. The next day he went out again on one of the 240 combat missions he flew while stationed in Vietnam.
He returned stateside in 1969 to attend Duke University, where he earned a Master of Arts degree in military and political science in 1970. He taught at the Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, Colo., as an associate professor of history. He then was stationed in Thailand, where he served as an F-4 pilot, instructor pilot and commander of the Laredo forward air controller flight, completing an additional 75 combat missions. In August 1974, he was reassigned to the Air Reserve Personnel Center in Colorado as chief of rated assignments.
After completing Army War College in 1976, Fogleman, now a lieutenant colonel, was assigned to the 36th Tactical Fighter Wing at Bitburg Air Base, West Germany, as assistant deputy commander for operations. During that stint, his unit became the first operational F-15 aircraft wing stationed outside the continental United States. In February 1978, he took on the duties of deputy commander for operations for the 32nd Tactical Fighter Squadron at Camp New Amsterdam, Holland. While at those European posts, Fogleman maintained mission-ready status with an additional duty as the United States Air Forces in Europe F-15 aircraft demonstration pilot, performing at many international air shows.
His next assignments were staff and command positions at Hill AFB, Utah, Headquarters Tactical Air Command, Langley AFB, Va.; MacDill AFB, Fla.; and Davis-Monthan AFB, Ariz.
Fogleman was promoted to brigadier general in October 1985, and five months later he went to the Pentagon as deputy director of programs and evaluation. Two years later he became director of that same organization, as well as chairman of the Air Staff Board at the Pentagon. As a lieutenant general in July 1990, he held command positions at Osan AB, Korea. In August 1992, he became Commander in Chief of U.S. Transportation Command and commander of Air Mobility Command at Scott AFB, Ill., where he was promoted to four-star status. Finally, he returned to the Pentagon in October 1994 as chief of staff of the United States Air Force.
He retired from active duty on Sept. 1, 1997.
General Ronald R. Fogleman’s selfless devotion and advocacy of the profession of arms and the defense of the United States of America are without equal. He was the driving force behind developing the Air Force’s core values of integrity first, service before self, and excellence in all we do. He lived by these values and expected all Airmen to do the same. His advancement of air mobility enabled the development of today’s unrivaled United States’ (U.S.) mobility air forces. As the Commander in Chief, United States Transportation Command, he was responsible to the Secretary of Defense for the nation’s defense transportation requirements. He exercised peacetime and combat command over service components from the Army, Navy, and Air Force. Commander, Air Mobility Command (AMC), he provided operationally trained, equipped and mission-ready air mobility forces to support U.S. requirements and the warfighting commanders. He was instrumental in constructing AMC’s core capabilities of aerial refueling, airlift and aeromedical evacuation as well as many other innovative programs. General Fogleman’s visionary leadership established the framework necessary for U.S. Air Forces to provide a global, long-range plan to transform the U.S. Air Force into the premier air and space force of the 21st century.
Leadership, Job Performance, And Noteworthy Accomplishments
On September 12, 1968, during his initial operational assignment with the 510th Tactical Fighter Squadron at Bien Hoa Air Base, South Vietnam, General Fogleman was shot down by multiple hits while conducting operations. He ejected over hostile territory and evaded enemy capture for hours, hiding from enemy patrols that approached as close as 20 yards to his position. General Fogleman was picked up by a Cobra helicopter in the area of his crash site. Lacking internal seating to carry passengers, he rode on the outside of the helicopter until reaching the safety of a Special Forces camp many miles away. Unaffected by this ordeal, General Fogleman flew one of his 240 Vietnam combat missions the very next day. In total, General Fogleman flew 315 combat missions and acquired over 800 combat hours as an F-100 Forward Air Controller and F-4E pilot. His exceptional courage in the face of hostile forces was recognized with the award of the Silver Star and two Distinguished Flying Crosses. General Fogleman also received the Purple Heart for injuries he received while ejecting from his crippled aircraft.
He continued this type of outstanding performance throughout his career. He was responsible for many firsts and role model programs and operations. For example as th e Commander, United States Transportation Command, he developed the command’s Joint Transportation Reser ve Unit (JTRU), the first multi-service r eserve unit established within the DOD into a “role model” for other commands to achieve Total Force integration. General Fogleman pioneered the initiative of joint service reserve training within USTRANSCOM tha t ultimately qualified many JTRU reserve members for full participation in USTRANSCOM Command Center activities. This innovative approach set a new st andard of excellence and enabled reser ve personnel to work side by side with their active duty counterparts as required by the Goldwater-Nichols Act. General Fogleman also directed and shepherded the establishment of the Joint Intelligence Center Transportation (JICTRANS). This consolidated intelligence facility produced tightly focused, predictive intelligence to meet critical joint planning and execution community needs. His leadership enabled United States Transportation Command to increase responsiveness to warfighters during the crises in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Somalia and Rwanda.
General Fogleman also led DOD efforts to develop and establish joint and service intermodal container doctrine. Analyzing the Mobility Requirements Study (MRS) and MRS Bottom-Up Review, he directed the development of containers uniquely required for the DOD container fleet. General Fogleman is also credited with USTRANSCOM’s design and development of a versatile joint container adaptable for all services. Working with the chief executive officers of the maritime industry, he began the process of reengineering and reinvigorating the Sealift Rediness Program to ensure a more orderly transition from peacetime contingencies to wartime. In addition, General Fogleman laid the foundation for a new era of DOD-civilian cooperation by initiating a program to develop a military/civilian, joint-use, intermodal facility to enhance commercial operations and be available for force projection in contingencies. Combining r esources of the military and commercial industry benefitted the Defense Tansportation System (DTS), and it served as a model for joint-use activities into the twenty-first century. Through his direct involvement, General Fogleman solved one of the major force projection deficiencies identified in the MRS. He identified the requirement for a West Coast Containerized Ammunition Port to the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) as one of the critical elements for timely force projection. His hands-on involvement ensured its funding throughout the Program Objective Memorandum (POM) process. He fostered closer working relationships with the Maritime Administration, raising the readiness of Ready Reserve Force vessels to its highest level in history.
General Fogleman’s vision and understanding of the significance of ITV in movement of cargo and passengers resulted in his declaration of 1994 as the “Year of In-Transit Visibility.” His perception of the need for In-Transit Visibility (ITV) became the catalyst for development of a DOD plan that spelled out an operational concept based on customer ITV requirements. These concepts form the basis for the blueprint in the design of an automated ITV capability at the “ready” for use in peace or war.
He elevated to the warfighting CINCs’ attention the paramount importance of Joint Logistics Over-the-Shore (JLOTS) as a capability necessary in the absence of fixed or degraded port facilities. Until then, JLOTS operations planning and training were receiving marginal attention. As a result of General Fogleman’s involvement, warfighti ng CINCs could now identify their operational plan requirements for JLOTS, and a five-year JLOTS exercise plan was incorporated in the JCS Joint Training Master Schedule.
General Fogleman was in the forefront of identifying and resolving funding issues crucial to the DTS. He was given the responsibility for total financial control of all common user transportation assets. This meant he had to create a joint financial structure from three service-specific financial operations. He faced four immediate leadership and managerial challenges: integration of programming, budget formulation, budget organization development, and staffing the budget execution. He met these challenges brilliantly, and his efforts resulted in submission of the first-ever DBOF-T budget and Program Objective Memorandum. He institutionalized a logical, solid system of program analysis and financial management that became well respected throughout the defense transportation industry.
General Fogelman was also the first Commander of Air Mobility Command and Air Force Academy graduate to achieve the position of Chief of Staff of the Air Force. As CSAF, General Fogleman worked tirelessly to strengthen Joint relationships while asserting Airmen should be proud of their shared heritage. He fervently communicated the message of being part of a “team within a team.” Through his leadership he inspired, created and hosted the first world-wide conference of air chiefs, bringing together 87 air chiefs to discuss how air and space forces could create a more stable and peaceful world.
Focused on the future, he decided how the U.S. Air Force would engage emerging global threats. Moreover, General Fogleman expanded the definition of global presence to include not only air, land and sea forces, but space forces and information-based capabilities. In addition, he recognized the fundamental need for a reaffirmation of the Air Force to its core values. With the publication of The Little Blue Book, General Fogleman began a concerted campaign to reshape the organizational environment to be more responsive and accountable. The construct of the new environment was specifically designed to assist in traversing stressful and turbulent times characterized by significant force structure reductions and increased operations tempo following the end of the Cold War. His shrewd leadership still spans the spectrum of current Air Force and Air Mobility Command operations and is integral to many of the very successful programs the U.S. Air Force values today.
Significant Contributions To The Advancement Of Air Mobility
During his tenure as Commander, United States Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM) and Commander Air Mobility Command, General Fogleman provided crucial direction, guidance, and support to over 150 Joint deployment operations and exercises including strategic and commercial lift for deployment, sustainment, and redeployment of forces.
Additionally, General Fogleman’s astute leadership was essential to the success of Operation Uphold Democracy as he oversaw the mobility support required for restoring the ousted democratic government of Haiti. Other significant operations where he significantly influenced the outcome and contributed to the advancement of air mobility included: Desert Sortie (redeployment of Desert Shield/Desert Storm forces); movement of Patriot missiles to Korea; GTMO (support of Haitian migrants at Guantanamo AB, Cuba).
Seeking to continually improve the mobility air forces and defense transportation system, General Fogleman directed a bottom-up review of the airlift channel process. This massive review involved the commanders, services, and other governmental agencies and resulted in a $315 million annual savings to the 350-channel system, primarily from reduction of channel frequency. This initiative improved efficiency and cost savings by reducing C-141 flying hours, thereby extending the aircraft’s life until a new core aircraft became fully operational.
General Fogleman orchestrated the development of a single, comprehensive transportation and traffic management publication for DOD, the Defense Transportation Regulation, divided into passenger, cargo, mobility, and personal property parts. This aggressive action reduced 2,200 pages of regulation by 50 percent while maintaining a quality, easy-to-use policy and procedural guide for the traffic managers throughout the worldwide Defense Transportation System.
Assessing the rapidly changing strategic environment and its impact upon the DOD, General Fogleman set out to conceptualize the Defense Transportation System of the future to support national security and warfighting strategies of the next century. Under his leadership, the command established a vision in a bold report, The “Ought To Be” Defense Transportation System for the Year 2010. The report outlined how the forces of customers, business competition, and change would affect our nation’s future commercial and defense transportation systems. With the 2010 Vision articulated, General Fogleman then formed a team dedicated to developing the strategic plan required to smoothly transition the command toward the Defense Transportation System 2010 structure.
In addition, he led AMC’s reengineering of the aeromedical evacu ation program. His vision and decisive actions improved the way pa tients are regulated and evacuated throughout the world, resulting in the development of USTRANSCOM’s Regulating And Command & Control Evacuation System (TRACES). TRACES integrated the separate theater patient movement processes with those of the continental United States, fusing the processes into a centralized global system.
Significant Changes To The Air Mobility Mission, Culture, And History
His leadership proved critical in Operation Restore Hope which demonstrated the Global Reach of the U.S. Air Force and its mobility forces. A visionary strategist, General Fogleman conceived and directed an innovative use of aerial refueling, which substantially increased the flexibility and capability of airlift missions. His direction was vital in showcasing the ability of U.S. mobility forces to not only deliver weapons of war, but also project hope; presenting a caring nation providing humanitarian relief to Rwandan refugees during Operation Support Hope. This exhibition of compassion extended to domestic relief operations for Hurricane Andrew, Typhoon Omas, Hurricane Iniki, flooding in the Midwestern United States and other humanitarian relief efforts.
Furthermore, General Fogleman actively guided the revitalization of the Civil Reserve Air Fleet program, which had suffered from a severe decline in civil aviation participation immediately following the Gulf War. General Fogleman also orchestrated the further integration of AMC and the Strategic Air Command into a combined air mobility command.
General Fogleman personally guided USTRANSCOM and Air Mobility Command in assuming a new medical mission, as mandated by DOD Directive 5154.6. As a result, USTRANSCOM greatly ex panded its medical regulatory and patient movement support to the unified commands and the services. Significantly improved global intransit visibility (ITV) of patients and command and control of intertheater patient movement are now hallmarks of the DOD system. Ultimately, this new mission allowed more patients to be evacuated during peak combat periods with less degradation to a commander’s sustained lift capability.
An additional by-product of the new medical mission was the merger of the Armed Services Medical Regulating Office and the Aeromedical Evacuation Coordination Center to form the Global Patient Movement Requirements Center (GPMRC). In addition to significantly increasing DOD’s ability to process patient movement, the GPMRC was designated as the first reinvention laboratory initiative at USTRANSCOM. Working concurrently with the Office of Assistant Secretary of Defense (Command, Control, Communications & Intelligence), General Fogleman led the command in reengineering the way patients are regulated and evacuated throughout the world as well as the subsequent redesign of the command and control system needed to incorporate the reengineered improvements. The result was “TRANSCOM’s Regulating And Command & Control Evacuation System” (TRAC2ES), which integrated the separate theater patient movement processes with those of the continental United States (CONUS) into a centralized global system. This system also decentralized execution to the outside of CONUS theaters and provided by-name patient ITV in both peace and war.
Deserving Of Induction
As the Air Force Chief of Staff, General Fogleman stabilized the service after the turmoil of reorganization and downsizing. He led the Air Force to new understandings of accountability and excellence, intensifying the commitment to personal integrity, service before self and excellence in every endeavor. Where others counseled silence on matters of fairness, he spoke out courageously on the national stage advocating for accountability and responsibility. As Commander, United States Transportation Command and Commander, Air Mobility Command, General Fogleman inspired and drove unprecedented organizational transformation that has lasting impact today and will continue into the future. His visionary style of leadership has proven invaluable to the United States’ mobility air force, as well as mobility air forces around the world.
Since his retirement from active duty in 1997, after 34 years of distinguished service, General Fogleman has remained a staunch supporter of the Air Force by continuing to serve on commissions that advise the nation on future defense needs. Donating his time and resources, he has been heavily involved in numerous fund-raising activities for the Air Force Memorial Association and demonstrated steadfast devotion to his alma mater and its ideals contributing countless hours of his time, talent, and financial resources to support the Academy’s mission and its cadets. General Fogleman served as Chairman of the Airlift/Tanker Association from 2004-2008. Throughout a lifetime of service to our great nation, General Fogleman greatly advanced the mission of air mobility and he espoused and lived by the core values of the United States Air Force: Integrity, Service, and Excellence.